Regulation of the Metabolism of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Butyrate in Colon Cancer Cells
Experimental and epidemiological evidence supports the idea that dietary fat and fiber influence colon carcinogenesis. Particularly, their components, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and butyrate, have been proven to exhibit beneficial effects on colon epithelial cell metabolism, signaling, and kinetics, thus preventing colon inflammation and cancer. Moreover, these effects may be strengthened by PUFA and butyrate combination. It appears that administration of these compounds might be a relatively nontoxic form of supportive therapy improving cancer treatment outcomes and slowing down or preventing recurrence of certain types of cancer. However, their efficient application has to be based on solid scientific evidence of their mechanisms of action from the molecular and cellular to the organismal level. In this review, we emphasize the role of lipids and their metabolism during tumor development, describe some important mechanisms considering cellular and molecular levels of PUFA and butyrate action in colon epithelial cells, and particularly focus on the interaction of their metabolism and the signaling pathways with respect to the differences in response of normal and cancer colon cells.