Novel Insights into the Electrochemical Detection of Nitric Oxide in Biological Systems
In recent years, microsensor technologies have made a rapid expansion into different fields of physical sciences, engineering, and biomedicine. For analyses of various biomolecules, novel sensors and detection platforms in the electrochemical field have been reported recently. The most important applications based on microelectromechanical systems dramatically reduce the need of manipulation steps with samples, while improving data quality and quantitative capabilities. This is also the case of a special class of electrochemical sensors that allow direct, real-time and non-invasive measurements of nitric oxide, whose determination is crucial for the purposes of basic research, as well as of preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, this minireview will focus on the description of recent discoveries in the electrochemical determination of nitric oxide, released in different in vitro systems.